Gangliocytoma is a rare type of tumor of the central nervous system (CNS) composed of mature neurons. Gangliocytomas can arise at any age, however, they are most common in adults between the ages of 10 and 30.
They are some of the most typical tumors linked to epilepsy. In general, gangliocytomas grow slowly and seldom progress to cancer.
These tumors are typically identified on imaging as cortical solid lesions with little to no surrounding vasogenic edema and little to no accompanying mass impact. Contrast enhancement is typically observed, and calcification and cyst development are both possible.
- Desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma/astrocytoma is a rare brain tumor that is classified as a WHO grade 1 tumor despite its aggressive appearance.
- Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNET) is a type of brain tumor that grows slowly. It is a glioneuronal tumor, which means it has both glial and neuronal features.
- Diffuse glioneuronal tumor (formerly known as diffused oligodendroglial-like leptomeningeal tumor of infancy) is a relatively new central nervous system malignancy.
- Papillary glioneuronal tumors are uncommon well-defined complicated solid cystic supratentorial lesions with a slow clinical progression.
- Rosette-forming glioneuronal tumors (RGNTs) are uncommon cancers that affect the fourth ventricle and/or the Sylvius aqueduct.
Gangliocytomas, like other cancers, develop when something causes alterations in the genetic instructions of cells. Cells begin to multiply in response to new instructions, eventually forming a bulk or tumor.
Most gangliocytoma tumors, however, form independently of any hereditary condition, and you will be evaluated to determine whether this is the case. Children who have specific genetic disorders, such as neurofibromatosis type 1 and tuberous sclerosis, are more likely to develop gangliocytoma and other types of gliomas.
Gangliocytoma tumors impact the central nervous system (CNS).
Gangliocytoma symptoms include:
- Alterations in movement, including loss of muscle control (tremors, paralysis, and weakness).
- Changes in sensation, including numbness.
- Difficulties with speech.
- Vision changes.
Your healthcare professional will inquire about your symptoms and family medical history to assist in the diagnosis of gangliocytoma. They will examine you physically and do a neurological examination to look at your Mouth and eye movement, muscle power, and Reflexes.
Using a powerful magnet, radio waves, and a computer, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) creates painless images of your inside organs and body structures. This test may be used by healthcare professionals to detect tumors or assess their size and location.
A computer and a succession of X-rays are used in a CT (computed tomography) scan to produce three-dimensional images of your soft tissues and bones. Similar to MRIs, medical professionals may use this test to detect and assess malignancies.
Your doctor may perform a blood test to check for atypical melatonin levels.
For the Spinal tap (lumbar puncture) test, a sample of the cerebrospinal fluid that envelops your brain and spine is taken.
To identify the type of tumor, your doctor takes tumor cells for testing. They frequently employ minimally invasive procedures like stereotactic needle biopsy or endoscopy.
If you don’t have any symptoms, your provider may advise you to have regular check-ups so that they may monitor any symptoms you develop and/or perform imaging and blood tests to determine whether the tumor has altered or expanded.
If you do require medical attention, doctors may do surgery to remove the tumor and brain surgery. Gangliocytomas seldom recur after removal.
When do we see Doctor?
If you have persistent symptoms that worry you, schedule a visit with your doctor. For the best outcome, early detection and treatment are essential.
There is nothing you can do to avoid these tumors. They form when cells mutate and multiply uncontrolled. Other than whether the mutation is linked to Cowden syndrome, researchers don’t know what causes it. It would be preferable if doctors could catch it as soon as possible.