Gynecological Cancer
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What is Gynecologic cancer?

Gynecologic cancer is the term used to describe any cancer that arises in a woman’s reproductive system. So, the possibility of acquiring gynecologic cancer exists in all women.

The term “Gynaecological Cancers” refers to the illness in which cancer or tumour cells grow in a woman’s reproductive organs. Age, obesity, family history, and HPV are significant risk factors for gynecologic cancer.

Cervical, ovarian, uterine, vaginal, and vulvar cancers are the five primary forms that attack a woman’s reproductive organs. They are collectively known as gynecologic cancer. The extremely rare fallopian tube carcinoma is the sixth variety of gynecologic cancer.

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The following types of gynaecological cancer are quite prevalent and affect a lot of women each year:

1. Cervical Cancer

Cervical cancer is typically squamous cell carcinoma; adenocarcinoma occurs less frequently. Human papillomavirus infection is the most common cause of cervical cancer. The first sign of cervical cancer is usually irregular, frequently postcoital vaginal bleeding. Early cervical cancer typically has no symptoms or signs, but it can be found early with routine checkups.

Typically, cervical cancer progresses gradually over time. Before cervix cancer manifests itself, the cervical tissue goes through changes known as dysplasia, in which abnormal cells begin to emerge in the tissue. The abnormal cells may eventually develop into cancer cells, expand, and spread farther into the cervix and into the surrounding tissues.

A cervical Papanicolaou test and biopsy are used to make the diagnosis. For early-stage disease, surgical resection is usually used, while for locally advanced disease, radiation therapy plus chemotherapy is used. Chemotherapy is frequently used alone if cancer has spread widely. Source

Also Read: Cervical Cancer: Symptoms, Causes, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, Prevention, Facts

2. Ovarian Cancer

Another typical gynaecological cancer is ovarian cancer. A cell growth that develops in the ovaries is considered ovarian cancer. The cells can penetrate and obliterate healthy biological tissue and reproduce quickly.

Two ovaries, one on each side of the uterus, make up the female reproductive system. The ovaries, which are each about the size of an almond, also produce the hormones progesterone and oestrogen.

It comes in three different forms: stromal cell cancer, germ cell cancer, and epithelial ovarian cancer. The most frequent of these, accounting for around 85% of all ovarian malignancies, is epithelial ovarian cancer.

Ovarian cancer symptoms are frequently not severe or acute, especially in the early stages. When they do, the cancer is frequently far along in its development. Surgery and chemotherapy are typically used in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Source

Also Read: Ovarian Cancer: Symptoms, Causes, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, Prevention, Facts

3. Uterine Cancer

One of the most prevalent types of gynaecological cancers is uterine cancer, which is cancer that starts in the uterus.

Endometrial cancer is usually referred to as uterine cancer because it is also the most prevalent type of uterine cancer. The endometrium, or inner lining of the uterus, is where endometrial cancer begins. Endometrial cancer, a condition in which cancerous cells develop in the uterine muscles or other tissues that support the uterus, is distinct from uterine sarcoma.

On the other hand, Uterine sarcoma is a condition that occurs when cancerous cells develop in the uterine muscles or other tissues that support the uterus. It develops in the muscles or tissues that support the uterus. Source

Also Read: Uterine Cancer: Symptoms, Causes, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, Prevention, Facts

4. Vaginal cancer

Vaginal cancer develops in the tissues that line the vagina, the muscular tube that connects the uterus to the outer genitals. Vaginal cancer is most commonly found in the cells that line the surface of your vagina, also known as the birth canal.

Risk factors for vaginal cancer include being older and having an HPV infection. Age, prior HPV diagnosis, and exposure to diethylstilbestrol as a foetus are risk factors that may raise a woman’s likelihood of developing vaginal cancer. Treatment for vaginal cancer is frequently highly effective when it is discovered early.

The most prevalent types of vaginal cancer are:

  • Squamous cell cancer (squamous carcinoma) – It is a type of cancer that develops in the squamous cells that line the vagina’s bottom surface.
  • Adenocarcinoma Cancer – It appears in the vaginal glands. Source

Also Read: Vaginal Cancer: Types, Causes, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, and Treatment

5. Vulvar Cancer

Vulvar cancer develops in the tissues that comprise the vulva, or the outer portion of the female genitals. The vulva is the skin that covers the urethra and vagina, as well as the clitoris and labia. Having vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia or being infected with HPV can increase the risk of developing vulvar cancer. 

Although vulvar cancer can occur at any age, elderly people are more likely to develop it. Age, infection with specific forms of HPV, smoking, and HIV infection are risk factors that may raise a woman’s likelihood of developing vulvar cancer. The vulva may experience intense itching, burning, and discomfort as a result of vulvar cancer.

In order to treat vulvar cancer and remove the disease as well as some adjacent healthy tissue, surgery is frequently employed. During vulvar cancer surgery, the entire vulva could need to be removed. The earlier vulvar cancer is detected, the less likely it will require extensive surgery for treatment. Source

Also Read: Vulvar Cancer: Symptoms, Causes, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, Prevention, Facts