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What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? What are STDs?

STDs (Sexually Transmitted diseases) are infections transmitted from an infected individual to a non-infected person. Approximately 20 types of STDs are recognized, and the causative agents of that are several viruses, bacteria, and parasites. 

How Does a Person Acquire STDs?

Just like the name says, the biggest and most common reason is sexual intercourse. There’s an excessive threat of getting STDs in case your intercourse is unprotected, with more than one companion, forced or simply because of misuse of alcohol/leisure drugs as they inhibit your judgment, making you more inclined to take part in volatile behaviors. However STDs do not continually need a “sexual cause” to transmit, they are able to transmit non-sexually too, for instance, from an inflamed pregnant mother to a child, sharing of needles infected with body fluids (infected blood, genital fluids etc.) or having preceding records of STD/STI.

Now, let us check out the 10 major Sexually Transmitted Diseases that are widely spread among individuals

1. Chlamydia Infections

Chlamydia is the most common bacterial STI within the USA and is recognized in 1.4 million new cases every year. It is transmitted via unprotected vaginal and anal intercourse. (Source) Sometimes people don’t have any signal that they have this disorder. A male with chlamydia may feel pain whilst urinating or see fluid drip from the penis. A female may bleed between periods, experience pain when urinating, see a discharge or feel a slight ache in the lower belly. From anal intercourse, a patient may also have anal bleeding or pain.

As soon as diagnosed, a person may be treated with an antibiotic. If untreated, it can cause critical harm to a female’s reproductive system, making it tough or impossible to get pregnant.

2. Genital Herpes

Genital herpes is observed most commonly in 1/6th of people aged between 14 to 49. (Source) This infection is a result of two viruses: Type 1 called HSV-1 and Type 2 called HSV-1. HSV-1 is mainly spread by means of nonsexual touch however it may spread with oral intercourse. It generally forms sores on the lips. HSV-2 spreads when fluid from the contamination touches a companion, often at some point in intercourse. Genital blisters from HSV-2 might not be visible. Blisters can shape, and wreck, resulting in aches and taking weeks to heal. There is no cure however, medicines can help lessen symptoms and lower the risk of passing the virus to others.

3. Genital Warts

Genital warts result from the human papillomavirus (HPV). It is spread via vaginal or anal intercourse. It may be transmitted even if an inflamed individual has no symptoms.

The developed warts are painless, fleshy, bumps, and look like cauliflowers. They develop at the penis or in and around the opening of the vagina or anus. HPV may also ultimately cause cervical cancer. Luckily, there’s a successful vaccine for the prevention of HPV and genital warts (Source). 

The vaccine is given to kids aged 11 or 12, or to people aged 20-26. there’s no recognized treatment for genital warts. However, they may be dealt with topical ointments. They can be eliminated with minor surgical approaches (e.g., cautery (freezing or burning off the wart), chemical substances, or laser). The vaccine is the best prevention.

4. Gonorrhea

Gonorrhoea can develop infections within the genitals, rectum, and throat. Teens and young adults around 15 to 24 are most likely to get affected. One might acquire gonorrhea by having any type of unprotected intercourse with an infected person. It may display no signs and symptoms. In other cases, the patient may also discover a discharge from the penis or vagina, and experience painful urination. 

Gonorrhoea is handled with antibiotics. If left untreated, it could result in critical harm to a female’s reproductive system, making it hard or simply impossible to get pregnant. In males, if gonorrhea is left untreated it can motivate urethral stricture. (Source)

5. HIV / AIDS

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) outcomes from contamination with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). This sexually transmitted disease isn’t curable, and doubtlessly lethal. It assaults the body’s immune system.

Only blood, semen (cum), pre-seminal fluid (pre-cum), rectal fluids, vaginal fluids, and breast milk deliver the virus. Inflamed needles or other sharp gear can spread AIDS as well. An infected woman can deliver her toddler the virus throughout pregnancy, childbirth or nursing.

Some people don’t have any symptoms if they get it. Others might also feel like they have got the terrible flu for the long term. The virus can pass unobserved for many years. If you suppose you’ve been in contact with an inflamed man or woman, you must get tested. Antiviral, HIV drug treatments are available to enhance the existence and health of an inflamed man or woman.

Also Read: All About HIV: Symptoms, Causes, Risk Factors, Prevention, Facts

6. HPV

This STI is a severe virus that assaults the liver. Blood, semen, and body fluids shared via intercourse can spread the virus. Many people are born with the disorder from their infected mother. Often people don’t have any clear signs but when they’re present, they could consist of fever, headache, muscle aches, fatigue, bad eating habits, vomiting, and diarrhea. 

Considering that HBV assaults liver cells, it can lead to cirrhosis, liver cancer, liver failure and possibly death. Dark urine, belly ache, and yellowing of the skin or eyes are symptoms of liver damage. There’s no recognized treatment for hepatitis B. Nevertheless, medicines to treat chronic infection will assist. Acute HBV has no remedy. Chronic HBV is dealt with antiviral drug treatments, interferon treatment, or a liver transplant. The vaccine is first-class prevention.

7. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection or irritation of organs affecting the female reproductive system (including the uterus, vagina, and fallopian tubes). PID generally influences young sexually lively females. For some, PID results in various signs whilst for others, it doesn’t cause any. STIs like chlamydia, mycoplasma genitalium, and gonorrhea are the most observed common reasons for PID.

For prevention, use condoms with any new sex partner and check out for STIs on a regular basis (at least yearly) as it can lessen your threat of PID. PID can result in scarring of the fallopian tubes and infertility.

8. Public Lice

Also known as crab lice or crabs, these are tiny, parasitic bugs that feed on blood. They spread effortlessly and result in itching and reddish spots. Lice usually dwell on the pores and skin within the genital region, however, they can be found in any region of the body with coarse hair, which includes the eyelashes, eyebrows, beard, and mustache. 

Lice typically transfer from one person to the other while having sex, as well as sharing towels and different personal objects. the primary symptom of pubic lice is itching, which may begin approximately 5 days after the first contact. One may also observe small reddish or blue bumps or darkish brown or black powder on the lower body, louse droppings at the pores and skin or within your undergarments.

9. Syphilis

Syphilis is a doubtlessly life-threatening bacterial infection from vaginal, anal or oral intercourse. it is distinctly contagious. Sores can be discovered on the penis, vagina, anus, within the rectum, or at the lips and mouth. Syphilis also can unfold from an inflamed woman to her unborn baby. Normally, the primary symptom is a painless open sore. 

Sores can shape your genitals or the palms of your arms and soles of your feet. the second-degree rash can seem like hard, red or reddish brown spots. Penicillin is a successful remedy. If syphilis isn’t immediately handled, it may stay inside the body for years, inflicting critical issues including paralysis, mental problems, harm to organs or even demise.

10. Trichomoniasis

One of the major sexually transmitted diseases, Trichomoniasis results from a parasite. It is spread via sexual contact from the penis or vagina. It in particular influences young, sexually energetic females. Uncircumcised men are found to transmit trichomoniasis more. Approximately 30% of human beings with this STI have symptoms. Males with this STI may feel itching or inflammation inside the penis. They will see discharge or sense burning after urination or ejaculation. 

Females may experience itching, burning, redness or soreness, and discomfort with urination. Or, they may have an uncommon discharge with a terrible odor. Having trichomoniasis may make it seem unpleasant to have sex. Without any treatment, the infection can continue to be for months to perhaps years. Women with it may give birth to underweight infants. Trichomoniasis can be effortlessly treated with antibiotics.

These are the 10 Major Sexually Transmitted Diseases – STDs that one should be aware of!

Also Read: Skin Disorder: Types Of Skin Disorders You Must Know – Part 1